Smol Melanesian Na Pasifik Nius Digest # 685
Planti Pacific Island lida ibin stap long bikpla miting blong African, Carribean na Pacific long Port Moresby.
Ol despla lida ibin toktok long planti samting, tasol wanpla long ol, em stap blong Fiji long ol narapla miting olsem long bihaen taem.
Interim Praim Minista blong Fiji, Commodore Frank Bainimarama ibin stap tu long despla miting, bihaenim askim PNG Praim MInista Peter O’Neill husat ibin raon igo long Fiji long mun igo pinis.
Politkal saintis blong Pacific, Dr Tarcicius Tara Kabutaulaka blong Center for Pacific Islands Studies long University blong Hawaii itok despla laen blong ACP i halvim rijan long ol kaen kaen samting. http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/tokpisin/2012-11-22/fiji-istap-long-pacific-acp-miting/1050402
By Online Editor
12:43 pm GMT+12, 22/11/2012, Papua New GuineaThe wreckage of a mystery aircraft disco¬vered in dense jungle in Morobe is causing a stir among locals. They claimed it could be a World War II aircraft.
This recent discovery was made by a team of Pepekani villagers and government officer Zure Tudi in the dense jungle mountains of Buang.
Their findings say the plane is a 1930s-40s model and the wreck is estimated to be between 70 and 80 years old.
It is a twin engine plane, with a designated number on the wing reading 699/669.
It is believed that on impact with the trees, the plane disintegrated and its fuselage was scattered over an extensive area. The team failed to locate the remains of the pilot and crew.
Anyone interested in an expedition and the wreckage and want more information can contact team leader Zure Tudi on email firstname.lastname@example.org
SOURCE: THE NATIONAL/PACNEWS
3) AUTONOMOUS BOUGAINVILLE NEWS:(Dawnfm)
By Aloysius Laukai
ABG Minister for Culture and Tourism, ROSE PIHEI has called for unity of all Bougainviilleans to fullfill ABG President’s number one pillar of unification of all Bougainvillean’s despite of their affiliations.
She made these comments when she was speaking at the close of the two-days Panguna negotiations forum this afternoon.
She also said that culture and Tourism including Agriculture should also be given prominence by the authorities.
She said that Agriculture and Tourism can become Bougainvile’s biggest revenue earner if given the attention it deserves.
The forum ended this afternoon.
221112PARIU THANKS PARTICIPANTS
By Aloysius Laukai
Panguna landowners representative, Michael Pariu says that this forum has helped the landowners to know where other Bougainvilleans are standing on the Panguna issue.
He said Panguna landowners are ready to work with the Autonomous Bougainville Government as the legitimate government for Bougainville and other factions are already working with them to join the team so that Bougainville can voice their grievances as one Bougainville.
He said Panguna mine will be opened as soon as all the negotiations are completed.
Mr. Pariu says that Panguna gave independence to PNG and should now be opened to give the necessary funds for Bougainville to move forward.
By Aloysius Laukai
The ABG Minister for Primary Industry. NICHOLAS DARKU says that Bougainville must have an aim why it wants the Panguna mine will achieve if it is finally opened.
He says that Bougainville must now plan what it wants to achieve with all the funds it will get from the Gold and Copper mine.
The minister says that as the Minister for Primary Industries he wants Bougainville to invest in Agriculture with funds that will come out of the mine.
This would in turn address the long term sustainability of Bougainville as minerals are non renewable resources and would be depleted for good once operation starts.
He said that Bougainville needs to look and plan for the future generation now.
by Aloysius Laukai
Assistant Commissioner for Police on Bougainville,ACP Thomas Eluh this morning warned Bougainvilleans on how the issues like Compensation and the first calm down payment could destroy Bougainville if not handled properly.
He was presenting Police’s views on the Panguna issues.
ACP Eluh said that if looking at compensation there must be values put in for individual issues like Death.person loosing one eye.loosing both legs etc.
He warned tgat if this is not handled properly Bougainville could get into much more trouble in future.
ACP Eluh said whats happening currently in Central Bougainville was illegal as more foreigners are involved with alluvial mining and scrape metals.
He saiid alll these must be sorted out so that Bougainville can be united to work on the issue of reopening the mine.
ACP Eluh said that his team has been finding hard to address law and order issues in the central Bougainville and he wants this trend reversed.
The forum will end this afternoon.
By Aloysius Laukai
The Director of Panguna Negotiations, RAYMOND MASONO has told the participants of the Panguna negotiations forum in North Bougainville today that the forum wants to get ideas from all Bougainvilleans on what issues should be covered or included during negotiation for the new Bougainville Copper Agreement.
He said that they were not talking on reviewing the Panguna Peace Agreement but on negotiating a new Agreement through negotiations between all stakeholders on Bougainville.
MR.MASONO said that this first forum was one of the several meetings that will be held throughout Bougainville.
He made these remarks when commenting on the aim and outcome they expect from this two-days Forum currently in progress in Buka.
By Aloysius Laukai
The ABG Acting President, JOE NOPE says that the second phase of the Panguna negotiations is consulting the wider Bougainville community.
He was speaking at the launching of the Panguna negotiations forum on Buka island this morning.
MR. NOPE said involving the entire Bougainville region on issues that affected the region and continues to affect the region.
211112PANGUNA NEGOTIATIONS FORUM OPENNED
By Aloysius Laukai
The Panguna Negotiations Forum for North Bougainville region started this morning at the Hutjena Secondary School Hall.
The Forum was officially opened by the Acting ABG President and member for Kunua,JOE NOPE.
The forum will get views from the leaders of North Bougainville on what they think on the future of Bougainville including the negotiations for a new Bougainville copper Agreement and the opening of the now closed Panguna Copper and Gold Mine
By Aloysius Laukai
We have updates on how Bougainville is doing in the PNG GAMES in Rabaul.
The women’s Volleyball team played 3games against team Milne Bay and won them 3sets to nil.
Netball,the first game was between NCDC and Bougainville in this game, NCDC walked over Bougainville with a score of 46 to 6.
On Boxing, the Bougainville team won the 49kg and and 54kg whilst they lost the 59kg.
On women’s Basketball the Bougainville team lost to the Western Highlands in a close match of 31 to 29.
Bougainville will compete again tomorrow in Body building, Power lifting and the paralympic games, with other codes also starting.
According to reports from the team, athletes were in high spirit and were optimistic of winning more games in the coming games.
By Aloysius Laukai
Business houses owed by the PNG Electoral Commission for services rendered in Bougainville during the June General elections have given the Bougainville Electoral Officials untill tomorrow Tuesday November 20th,2012 to response to their demands or take other cause of actions if nothing happens.
A quick check by New Dawn FM this morning found out that Electoral Officials were still trying to communicate with Port Moresby to settle these outstanding monies.
Committee for the Business houses advised other members that tommorrows planned meeting has been post phoned until next week.
Their last meeting two weeks ago demanded that the Electoral Commission pay them by tomorrow.
If not they will not allow the ABG BY ELECTION to go ahead and that in any future elections. services must be paid for first as under the User Pay service.
By Online Editor
12:40 pm GMT+12, 22/11/2012, Solomon IslandsThe Solomon Islands Customs and Exercise (Amendment) Bill 2012 has been passed in Parliament Wednesday.
Introducing the bill in Parliament for debate, Minister of Finance and Treasury Rick Hou said the bill was very important.
Hou said the amendment of the bill will better facilitate the regular and timely updates of excise and export duties.
“To better facilitate and improve administration of tariff, excise and export regimes, an amendment of the Customs and Excise Act is necessary.”
He said trade was one of the very important aspects for a country’s growth and development.
“In fact the Solomon Islands economy has relied solely on the export and Import sectors, and more than 70% of total Government revenue comes from international trade.”
He explained that the amendment (changes) allowed Solomon Islands to adopt a new international system in a timely and planned manner.
“We would like to implement the updated 2012 version of the Harmonized Coding System (HS 2012).
“This is a comprehensive harmonised list of products that was the international standard for classifying goods fortrade and related purposes.”
Hou informed Parliament, most Pacific Island Countries and Trading Partners along with other Melanesian Spearhead Group members are already using HS2012.
He said Regional Free Trade Agreements will now be negotiated based on the version of the system.
SOURCE: SOLOMON STAR/PACNEWS
5)Rural Solomons Water Infrastructure To Be Improved
Australia pledges $91.2 million to upgrade services
HONIARA, Solomon Islands (Solomon Times, Nov. 21, 2012) – Water tanks and toilets are being installed in rural schools to improve public health thanks to a national partnership with AusAID, World Vision and ADRA.
Australia’s High Commissioner to Solomon Islands, Matt Anderson, says this has given access to clean water and basic sanitation services to an additional 3,800 households.
Twelve schools were also connected to improved sanitation facilities last year.
Australia is providing SB$675 million [US$91.2 million] over the next four years to assist the Solomon Islands Government improve health services in Solomon Islands.
Dr. Jagadeesh Nellore, a policy expert on public health, says sanitation continues to be one of the key health issues in the developing world.
“2.5 billion people, over a third of the world’s population, lack access to adequate sanitation facilities, perpetuating disease and high rates of child mortality,” he says.
Dr. Nellore says this puts a strain on governments that already face a multitude of developmental challenges.
“In order to address diseases that are largely preventable, stakeholders most focus on achieving access to basic sanitation…this must be addressed at its early stages, when it is still manageable.”
Australia has indicated that it will fund an additional SB$72 million [US$9.7 million] for rural water, sanitation and hygiene services. The government has also indicated that it will increase budgetary support.
6)Lawyers, MPs rally to topple Kilman
If justice is to be seen to prevail then Opposition Grouping MP Willie Jimmy is determined for the Supreme Court to rule on the election of former caretaker Prime Minister Sato Kilman.
It is too late now for the Electoral Office to give any explanation how it allowed then caretaker Prime Minister Sato Kilman to contest the elections on October 30 without settling his Vt13 million outstanding land rent.
If the Court rules that his election is unlawful, it is likely to cause the Government to collapse to force Parliament to reconvene to elect a new Government.
The outspoken MP and President of the Vanuatu Liberal Party has confirmed his intention to file relevant documents through his legal counsel Willie Daniel with the Registrar of the Supreme Court before November 27, to challenge the decision of the Electoral Office for allowing Sato Kilman to contest the October 30 general elections, even though his records showed that he had yet to settle his outstanding land rent with the Government totaling Vt 13 million.
He says two other lawyers are also joining his lawyer to work as one team to lodge the case in court.
Jimmy says he will also seek the support of the Vanuaaku Pati and Graon mo Jastis Pati to stand with him in his push to get the Court to rule on whether or not the Electoral Office acted within the law to allow Kilman to contest the general elections on October 30. “Clearly it is a Government of the Republic of Vanuatu invoice (on land rent) and I have a copy of it dating from June 2011 to June 2012 so I know that it has yet to be settled”, he says.
MP Jimmy says he was campaigning in Torba Province when he received an urgent message from his family in Port Vila to settle his outstanding land rent totaling Vt46, 000. “I immediately advised my family to settle the amount but even so, my name was not on the list of eligible candidates. When I asked why, they explained that I also had an outstanding tax for a bus that dated back to 2004”, he remembers.
“God knows why I was allowed to contest the 2008 without any mention of the tax at the time. I sold the bus to a client back in 2004 and they waited for me until 2012 to get me to settle the tax.
“It is not fair on those of us who had to apply drastic measures to clear our names to contest while one of us was allowed to sail through the elections without completing his outstanding obligation to the Government”.
MP Jimmy also wishes to reply to the Director General of Lands, Joe Ligo’s letter in the last issue of Daily Post. “I worked with Mr Ligo in the past as the DG of Justice then Lands and I still have a lot of respect for his professionalism both as a public servant as well as a lawyer and have nothing personal against him”, the MP says.
“But I find it difficult to understand Mr Ligo’s attempt to distance the Ministry and Department of Lands from Mr Kilman’s outstanding land rents. All land rents and debts from Government statutory bodies are collected by the Government as required by law. The outstanding land rents issue of Lakatoro public land is a totally different case compared to the outstanding Vt13 million land rents and it is up to Mr Kilman if he wants to take the case to court.
“I remember that there were three custom landowners in the Lakatoro case and when I was the Minister of Finance, I remember paying out an amount by cheque totalling Vt30 million to one of the landowners called Harold.”
He says the Kilman Family is not the sole custom landowner of Lakatoro.
MP Jimmy wishes to thank every member of the public who has used the social media to support the stand he has taken against the Vt13 million outstanding land rents.
7)Vanuatu Party Seeks Ban On Naturalized Citizen Candidates
Nagriamel secretary says country does not want foreigners in leadership
WELLINGTON, New Zealand (Radio New Zealand International, Nov. 21, 2012) – Vanuatu’s customary political party, the Nagriamel movement, says the country needs to amend its constitution to prevent naturalized citizens contesting general elections.
This follows last month’s success of an American-born naturalized Vanuatu citizen, Robert Bohn, who won a seat in the 52-member parliament. Johnny Blades reports.
Energized by its own success in winning three seats in parliament, the Nagriamel has indicated it wants parliament to address the increasing influence of foreign interests in Vanuatu.
The Nagriamel secretary general Jeff Patunvanu says naturalized citizens don’t necessarily understand the Melanesian values that Vanuatu’s constitution is based on.
He says Nagriamel will push for legislation to address the way naturalized citizens should be treated.
“The country does not like to have foreigners leading this country. It’s a very small country and a very unique country in the Pacific. We have more belief on our custom traditions, more on our Melanesian fashions, Melanesian ways and Melanesian belief. That’s why we believe the way the country is heading to is not the right way.”
The new MP, Robert Bohn is a well known investor who has lived in Vanuatu for 33 years, since before independence.
He says Jeff Patunvanu’s comments come from a position of unfounded fear about a takeover by naturalized citizens.
“Are we going to, as a country, accept naturalized citizens but somehow relegate them to a second class status? That’s an issue we need to look at for the country. I somewhat disagree that our constitution is based solely on Melanesian values. Certainly they’re there and certainly we need to respect them, but there are democratic values, there are lots of other issues that need to be brought into play, need to be thought about, when we’re looking at our constitution.”
Robert Bohn says he believes he has a general understanding of Melanesian values, yet has much to learn too.
However, he says people in Epi exercised their democratic rights by electing him as their representative.
“Now the people on Epi have listened to thirteen different candidates and they chose to go with their homegrown political party and they’ve elected me, a naturalized citizen, as their first candidate, by a fair margin. So the people of Epi have spoken and you’ve got to respect that.”
The leader of the Reunification of Movement for Change party, Charlot Salwai, says the constitution provides that foreigners must live in Vanuatu for ten years before gaining citizenship.
“Any leaders of the community can recommend (citizenship) as a recognition of what he’s doing after ten years in Vanuatu. I think the issue is that we need to reconsider that many are getting citizenship after being here for less than ten years. Even (after) two years, people are getting citizenship and we need to reconsider that.”
The issue may yet be examined by parliament in conjunction with the country’s persistent problem of government ministers selling diplomatic passports.
The number of foreigners holding Vanuatu diplomatic passports last year was still higher than the number of Vanuatu citizens holding the same.
Radio New Zealand International: www.rnzi.com
8)Specialist says Vanuatu land leases amount to alienation
Posted at 06:39 on 22 November, 2012 UTC
A specialist in land and governance issues in Vanuatu says the land grab underway through lease arrangements in the country is of a similar scale to Papua New Guinea’s but by contrast has gained little attention.
Siobhan McDonnell, who recently worked as Land Law advisor to Vanuatu’s Attorney General, says land pressures are increasing, especially on Efate and Santo.
Ms McDonnell says that approximately 10 to 12 percent of Vanuatu land is now under lease.
She says social issues associated with the alienation of land leave Vanuatu’s youthful population disenfranchised and vulnerable.
“There may be improvement clauses built into those leases which means that the time the lease term is up, custom land owners will need to compensate for any buildings on that land. And if they’re large scale resorts or expensive housing, it’s very unlikely that custom landowners are going to be able to compensate, which is where you get the argument that that style of leasing is really alienation.”
And that’s Pacific Regional News from Radio New Zealand International
Radio New Zealand International
9)France Neutral On New Caledonia Independence
Minister says controversial issues unlikely to be resolved by 2014
WELLINGTON, New Zealand (Radio New Zealand International, Nov. 21, 2012) – The French overseas territories minister says he wants to guide New Caledonia’s decolonization process without taking side for or against independence.
The minister is due in Noumea on Friday to prepare next month’s top-level talks in Paris on the 1998 Noumea Accord on greater autonomy which provides for a possible independence referendum after 2014.
Walter Zweifel reports.
“In an interview with New Caledonia’s only daily paper, Victorin Lurel has stressed he will insist on the strict application of the accord, which he says imposes on the French state to keep an equal distance to the pro- and anti-independence camps. Without naming Nicolas Sarkozy, Mr. Lurel says at times the authorities forget their impartiality, with top office holders speaking out in favor of the territory remaining within the French republic. He also says that the Noumea Accord calls for a common name and flag to be agreed on – two highly controversial issues, Mr. Lurel concedes, are unlikely to be resolved before the elections in two years.”
Radio New Zealand International: www.rnzi.com
By Online Editor
5:06 pm GMT+12, 22/11/2012, KiribatiKiribati’s Minister for Transport Taberannang Timeon says the monopoly that Fiji’s Air Pacific has on key routes in the region has made some international flights unaffordable for i-Kiribati.
In September last year, the Fiji government suddenly suspended Air Kiribati’s flight between Nadi and Tarawa, which was operated by Nauru’s national carrier Our Airline.
Timeon said Fiji has since said the Air Services Agreement did not contain a leasing arrangement clause.
He said there is an increasing level of urgency in Kiribati to reach some agreement with Fiji to resume that flight, because the only choice now is Air Pacific’s flight.
“Their fares as I told you have skyrocketed and most people cannot afford that because Air Pacific monopolises that route now. We’ve voiced our concerns to the Fiji government, through the interim government, they know our problem, it’s affecting our seasonal workers in New Zealand because their fares are so high.”
Timeon says Kiribati has asked to meet the interim government to try and solve the issue but it hasn’t replied yet.
By Online Editor
5:19 pm GMT+12, 22/11/2012, FijiMore than 30 percent of Fiji’s projected national spending for 2013 will go towards improving public infrastructure, especially national roads.
For the first time, the Fijian Government will spend over FJD$700 million (US$395 million) for capital works, with a clear focus on fixing national and rural roads, one of the biggest challenges identified by Prime Minister, Commodore Voreqe Bainimarama.
Allocation for capital works represent 32 percent of the projected national spending next year.
“Only by an ambitious spending initiative can we overcome our greatest infrastructure problem and one of the biggest barriers to Fiji’s economic development.
“So we will do a lot more to fix our roads by increasing our national deficit – from 1.9 per cent to 2.8 per cent, said Prime Minister Bainimarama.
The Fijian government admits the state of Fiji roads ‘desperately need attention after decades of neglect.’
Under the reformed Fiji Roads Authority, the new unit will manage the FJD$422 million (US$238) set aside for the construction and maintenance of roads and bridges in 2013.
“We have hired MWH from New Zealand to help oversee this process. We need overseas companies to not just fix our roads but to pass on skills to Fijians.
Prime Minister Bainimarama has signed three five-year road maintenance contracts with foreign companies – all from New Zealand – to begin work on major road improvements across the country.
“These companies will bring new technologies and methods, and will provide long-term solutions, not temporary fixes. They will give us better results and a better return on our investment.
As a mark of its commitment towards the 2014 national elections, an allocation of FJD$1 million(US$565 million) is earmarked for the Constituent Assembly to be set up early next year to debate the country’s draft constitution.
“As you know, the Constitutional Commission’s work will come to an end at the beginning of January, 2013. Following the submission of the draft constitution by the Constitutional Commission to His Excellency our President, a Constituent Assembly will review the draft constitution before final adoption.
The Budget also provides FJD$11 million (US$6 million) for the Elections Office to prepare for the 2014 parliamentary elections.
In preparation for the first sitting of Parliament under the new constitution, FJD$1 million (US$565 million) has been allocated to refurbish and upgrade the existing parliamentary complex
Education and health, as expected received a boost, with FJD$268 million (US$151 million) and FJD$167 million (US$94 million), respectively.
The Fijian Government has continued with its pro-poor policies from 2012.
“It builds on the policies of my Government over the past few years and our philosophy of prudent financial management, service delivery, and consistency. It provides us with better infrastructure and strengthens our economic base. It is a budget that improves the lot of all Fijians. It empowers them and provides them with better opportunities. It is an investment in all our futures, said Prime Minister Bainimarama.
12)Australian scientists un-discover Pacific Island
Australian scientists have declared that a South Pacific island identified on both Google Earth as well as world maps does not exist
Australian scientists have declared that a South Pacific island identified on both Google Earth as well as world maps does not exist, after they went searching for the mystery landmass during a geological expedition.
The sizeable phantom island in the Coral Sea is shown as Sandy Island on Google Earth and Google maps and is supposedly midway between Australia and the French-governed New Caledonia.
The Times Atlas of the World appears to identify it as Sable Island while weather maps used by the Southern Surveyor, an Australian maritime research vessel, also say it exists, according to the chief scientist aboard, Dr Maria Seton. T
But when Australia’s new Marine National Facility research vessel, Southern Surveyor, steamed to where the island was supposed to be, it was nowhere to be found.
“We wanted to check it out because the navigation charts on board the ship showed a water depth of 1,400 metres (4,620 feet) in that area – very deep,” Dr Seton told AFP after the 25-day voyage.
“It’s on Google Earth and other maps so we went to check and there was no island.
“How did it find its way onto the maps? We just don’t know, but we plan to follow up and find out.”
News of the invisible island sparked debate on social media, with tweeter Charlie Loyd pointing out Sandy Island is also on Yahoo Maps as well as Bing Maps “but it disappears up close”.
On www.abovetopsecret.com, discussions were robust with one poster claiming he had confirmed with the French hydrographic office that it was indeed a phantom island and was supposed to have been removed from charts in 1979.
Another claimed: “Many mapmakers put in deliberate but unobtrusive and non-obvious ‘mistakes’ into their maps so that they can know when somebody steals the map data.”
Google says it always welcomes feedback on a map and “continuously explore(s) ways to integrate new information from our users and authoritative partners into Google Maps”.
“We work with a wide variety of authoritative public and commercial data sources to provide our users with the richest, most up-to-date maps possible,” said a Google spokesman.
“One of the exciting things about maps and geography is that the world is a constantly changing place, and keeping on top of these changes is a never-ending endeavour.”
By Online Editor
5:25 pm GMT+12, 22/11/2012, Papua New Guinea
Morobe have won the bid to stage the 6th PNG Games in 2014.
Chairperson of the PNG Games Council (PNGGC) Iammo Launa confirmed that Morobe won the bid ahead of the National Capital District and Eastern Highlands who withdrew their bid at the last minute.
This will be the second time that Morobe will host the games. The second games were held in Lae in 2005 following the inaugural “Grassroots Olympics” in Goroka, Eastern Highlands, in 2003.
Lae will again host the Games with its wide range of sporting facilities and other amenities, including the Sir Ignatius Kilage Stadium and Lae rugby league ground.
Launa said the Morobe provincial government would underwrite the 2014 Games after it successfully won the bid in Kokopo
She said that Governor Kelly Naru presented Morobe’s bid yesterday and committed K29 million for the games.
Launa added that the NCD bid had the full backing of its four members of Parliament but Governor Powes Parkop did not attend the final bid presentation.
She said the games council (comprising representatives from each province) eventually voted in favour of the Morobe bid, citing the financial commitment (K29 million) and support by Naru and his provincial government.
It is not known whether the 2015 Pacific Games in Port Moresby had any bearing on the final outcome of the NCD bid.
Meanwhile, The PNG Sports Federation and Olympic Committee have a budget surplus of K39.37 million to be spread over four years.
Federation president Sir John Dawanincura is urging 2015 Pacific Games sports to use funding from the “Go for Gold” programme to prepare athletes for the 2015 Pacific Games.
Sir John thanked the government for their support in helping sports prepare for 2015.
He reminded individual codes that a lot was expected of them and the amount of government funding was a testament to the commitment of the state.
Secretary-general Auvita Rapilla said the decision to rename their component of the G2G was taken at a recent G2G steering committee meeting and was done to reflect the specific purpose of funding being accessed through the PNGSFOC.
“This means funding will be focused on genuine gold medal potential sports and more specifically on athletes within the codes,” she said.
A programme hosted by the PNGSFOC last week provided national sporting federations information on the 2012 G2G funding and the 2013 Go For Gold funding.
So far more than K3 million has been allocated to sports in 2012 for their various programmes.
Funding has been used to support sports attend international competitions, stage their national championships, hold training camps, source expert coaches to develop their athletes, train their technical officials and engage sports development officers to assist with the administration and development of their sport.
SOURCE: THE NATIONAL/PACNEWS